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The massacre of Indian nationalists at Jallianwala Bagh; Britain must apologize

As we’re stepping into the 100th anniversary of Jallianwala Bagh massacre, it once again reminds us how inhuman the ideology of British colonialism was

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Baisakhi is a religious and cultural festival in India, mostly celebrated by the Punjabi people. But the Baisakhi day (April 13) of 1919 was not happened to be a day of celebrations for Indians as it turned out to be the historical date for one of the most inhuman massacres in India.

Michael O’Dwyer was the British Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab at the time of Jallianwala Bagh massacre, and he approved Reginald Dyer’s actions

The Westerners call it Amritsar massacre, and for Indians, it is Jallianwala Bagh massacre. One of the most important episodes in Indian history which acted as a catalyst for India’s struggle for freedom, inspiring young revolutionaries including Bhagat Singh to take on the British by sacrificing their lives at the altar of motherland.

‘The Martyr’s’ well at Jallianwala Bagh/Wikimedia Commons

The ideology of hatred has little space in a progressive society. But, the so-called advocates of development, the colonial Britishers, had no idea about the meaning of humanity in its real sense. Here is a fact-sheet about the Jallianwala Bagh massacre:

>> The Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place on 13 April 1919 in Amritsar, Punjab

>> The park was occupied by Baishakhi pilgrims and civilians to celebrate Baishakhi and to protest the arrest and deportation of two national leaders, Satya Pal and Dr Saifuddin Kitchlew

>> Colonel Reginald Dyer was the villain of the story. He was the inhuman officer who fired rifles into the civilian crowd. Col Dyer was the acting military commander for Amritsar

>> According to the British Government, 79 dead and 1,200 wounded in the tragedy. But unofficial sources claimed that over 1,000 innocent people were killed in the cold-blooded massacre

The Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919/Wikimedia Commons

The mastermind

Michael O’Dwyer was the mastermind behind the massacre. He was the British Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab at the time of Jallianwala Bagh massacre, and he approved Reginald Dyer’s brutal actions.

Udham Singh, one of the popular revolutionaries in the post Jallianwala Bagh era who himself wounded in the massacre, killed Michael O’Dwyer on 13 March 1940, at Caxton Hall in London.

After that, Singh became the hero for revolutionaries who avenged the British for the innocent lives who sacrificed for Mother India at Jallianwala Bagh.

The Indic Post view

We think that Britain must apologise for Jallianwala Bagh massacre as London Mayor Sadiq Khan said it openly last year.

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History

Name, 'Azad'; father’s name 'Swatantrata'. All you need to know about Chandra Shekhar Azad

Azad was prolific in his political career, strongly believed that revolution was the need of the hour to liberate Mother India from the British

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Image Credit: Amitbugg/Wikimedia Commons/ CC-BY-SA-3.0

Chandra Shekhar Azad was one of the most vibrant and influential Indic revolutionaries India has ever seen. Born on July 23, 1906, he was the leader who gave a new dimension to India’s revolutionary movement, commanding it systematically through Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA).

Born in Bhavra village of Madhya Pradesh as Chandra Shekhar Tiwari, he was inspired by the activities of Mohandas Gandhi at his teens, joining the non-cooperation movement and got arrested. At the age of 15 Azad stunned the British when his case came before the magistrate in 1921.

The magistrate asked his name; Chandra Shekhar gave it as Azad, which means ‘the free’. And his father’s name Swatantrata, which implies ‘independence’. Then what about his residence, the brave boy gave it as ‘jail’. That’s the story behind the transformation of Chandra Shekhar Tiwari as Chandra Shekhar Azad.

Azad was prolific in his political career, strongly believed that the need of the hour was to fight the British with arms in his hands. Realising that the way he handled the revolutionary activities would impact how future young patriots approached the independent struggle, he handed down a legacy of sacrificing life at the altar of motherland.

He was also an inspiration for legendary Indic patriot Bhagat Singh

Azad’s encounter with Ram Prasad Bismil, a solid Arya Samajist and revolutionary who co-founded the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) was the turning point. Bismil was heavily impressed with Azad and his fearless commitment to the great national purpose.

Azad had been actively involved in the activities of HRA; he led the young patriots in an unparalleled manner and became a national hero. He was also an inspiration for legendary Indic patriot Bhagat Singh.

Azad’s role was evident in the famous Kakori Train Robbery of 1925. He also took part in the attack against the Viceroy of India’s train in 1926. To avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, one of the mainstream leaders of India’s independent movement, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru and Azad planned the shooting of J P Saunders in Lahore in 1928.  Saunders was a British police official who’s responsible for the brutal attack against Lala Lajpat Rai.

The sacrifice

It was on 27 February 1931 the British police got information from an unknown source that Azad was stationed at Alfred Park in Allahabad. Surrounding the park, the police went on for him, but bravely Azad defended, killing three policemen Azad shot himself dead with his last bullet in his pistol.

As a tribute to the great patriot, Alfred was renamed as Chandra Shekhar Azad Park. He is remembered with Chandra Shekhar Azad Memorial at the park.

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Culture

Here’s the palace built for Aswathi Thirunal Umayamma, popularly known as Umayamma Rani

Koyikkal Palace was built for Umayamma Rani, the regent of Venad between 1677 and 1684

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Situated at Nedumangadu, Thiruvananthapuram district, in South Indian state of Kerala, Koyikkal Palace Museum opened for public post refurbishment in the last week of May.  The architectural marvel has opened after four years of renovation.

Reflecting the affluent culture of Kerala, the palace was built in the 16th century, marking the traditional Kerala ‘nalukettu’ style. It’s a double storeyed palace built for the regent of Venad Royal family, Umayamma Rani. She was the regent of Venad from 1677 to 1684.

The renovated Koyikkal Palace

A Folklore Museum and Numismatics Museum make the palace more intriguing for history lovers.

Since 1980, the Archaeology Department of Kerala has been maintaining the palace, and it is touted as a tourist destination too. The Museum has got exceptional stuff including rare ancient coins, traditional music instruments, weapons and a wide range of folklore objects.

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Not a mere sepoy; Mangal Pandey was the man who sparked off the great rebellion of 1857

Mangal Pandey was the man who sparked off the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. Here’s what you need to know about the great ‘sepoy’ when we celebrate the 161th anniversary of the great rebellion of 1857

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One of the most inspiring figures in the Indian independence movement and widely known as the man behind the great rebellion of 1857, Mangal Pandey became a symbol of India’s rage against the British.

Pandey was a sepoy (soldier) with the 34th Bengal Native Infantry regiment of the infamous British East India Company. A hero for the Indian masses, he successfully played a crucial role in the unrest that resulted in the rebellion of 1857, which became a turning point in India’s struggle for independence.

The unrest against the British East Company turned intense when they had come up with the norm of using cartridges that made up of cow and pig fat. This was something unacceptable for both the Hindus and Muslims for religious reasons. Mangal Pandey was working at the Bengal Infantry in Barrackpore then.

The protests had no result. Finally Mangal Pandey decided to challenge the British with the arms in his hands. Mangal Pandey had succeeded in gaining the support of Indian soldiers against the inhuman actions of the British East India Company’s army.

Savarkar’s work, The Indian War of Independence, 1857, had become a sacred book for the nationalists across India to lead their struggle against the invaders

On March 29, 1857 Pandey dared to fire Lieutenant Baugh, the Adjutant of the 34th Bengal Native Infantry, but he missed the shot. The valiant effort by Pandey had paved the way for Sepoy Mutiny, and he was sentenced to death bu the British.

Pandey was hanged on April 8, 1857 by the British. In 1909, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar published a book named The Indian War of Independence, 1857, which celebrated the sacrifice of Mangal Pandey and the Sepoy Mutiny as two path-breaking events to inspire the revolutionary movements in India. Savarkar’s work had become a sacred book for the nationalists across India to lead their struggle against the invaders.

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